|Dosage Form||Package Information||Links|
|TABLET, FILM COATED||30 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE (57664-115-83)||Label Information|
|TABLET, FILM COATED||100 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE (57664-115-08)||Label Information|
|TABLET, FILM COATED||500 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE (57664-115-13)||Label Information|
|TABLET, FILM COATED||60 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE (57664-115-86)||Label Information|
|TABLET, FILM COATED||1000 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE (57664-115-18)||Label Information|
|TABLET, FILM COATED||100 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE (57664-115-88)||Label Information|
Gemfibrozil tablets, USP is a lipid regulating agent. It is available as tablets for oral administration. Each tablet contains 600 mg gemfibrozil. Each tablet also contains carnauba wax, colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, USP, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol 400, polyethylene glycol 8000, polysorbate 80, pregelatinized starch, and sodium starch glycolate. The chemical name is 5-(2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethylpentanoic acid, with the following structural formula:
The molecular formula is C15H22O3 and the molecular weight is 250.35; the solubility in water and acid is 0.0019% and in dilute base it is greater than 1%. The melting point is 58° to 61° C. Gemfibrozil is a white solid which is stable under ordinary conditions.
Gemfibrozil tablets, USP is a lipid regulating agent which decreases serum triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and increases high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. While modest decreases in total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol may be observed with gemfibrozil tablets therapy, treatment of patients with elevated triglycerides due to Type IV hyperlipoproteinemia often results in a rise in LDL-cholesterol. LDL-cholesterol levels in Type IIb patients with elevations of both serum LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are, in general, minimally affected by gemfibrozil tablets treatment; however, gemfibrozil tablets usually raises HDL-cholesterol significantly in this group. Gemfibrozil tablets increases levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions HDL2 and HDL3, as well as apolipoproteins AI and AII. Epidemiological studies have shown that both low HDL-cholesterol and high LDL-cholesterol are independent risk factors for coronary heart disease.
|Incidence of Eventsâ€¡
|Event||Gemfibrozil tablets at Study Start||Placebo at Study Start||Gemfibrozil tablets: Placebo Hazard Ratioâ€||Cl
||0.62 to 1.03
||0.63 to 1.54
||0.95 to 2.05
||0. 90 to 1.61
Gemfibrozil tablets, USP are indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for:
In a subgroup analysis of patients in the Helsinki Heart Study with above-median HDL-cholesterol values at baseline (greater than 46.4 mg/dL), the incidence of serious coronary events was similar for gemfibrozil and placebo subgroups (see Table I).
The initial treatment for dyslipidemia is dietary therapy specific for the type of lipoprotein abnormality. Excess body weight and excess alcohol intake may be important factors in hypertriglyceridemia and should be managed prior to any drug therapy. Physical exercise can be an important ancillary measure, and has been associated with rises in HDL-cholesterol. Diseases contributory to hyperlipidemia such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus should be looked for and adequately treated. Estrogen therapy is sometimes associated with massive rises in plasma triglycerides, especially in subjects with familial hypertriglyceridemia. In such cases, discontinuation of estrogen therapy may obviate the need for specific drug therapy of hypertriglyceridemia. The use of drugs should be considered only when reasonable attempts have been made to obtain satisfactory results with nondrug methods. If the decision is made to use drugs, the patient should be instructed that this does not reduce the importance of adhering to diet.
1. Because of chemical, pharmacological, and clinical similarities between gemfibrozil and clofibrate, the adverse findings with clofibrate in two large clinical studies may also apply to gemfibrozil. In the first of those studies, the Coronary Drug Project, 1000 subjects with previous myocardial infarction were treated for five years with clofibrate. There was no difference in mortality between the clofibrate-treated subjects and 3000 placebo-treated subjects, but twice as many clofibrate-treated subjects developed cholelithiasis and cholecystitis requiring surgery. In the other study, conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), 5000 subjects without known coronary heart disease were treated with clofibrate for five years and followed one year beyond. There was a statistically significant (44%) higher age-adjusted total mortality in the clofibrate-treated than in a comparable placebo-treated control group during the trial period. The excess mortality was due to a 33% increase in non-cardiovascular causes, including malignancy, post-cholecystectomy complications, and pancreatitis. The higher risk of clofibrate-treated subjects for gallbladder disease was confirmed.
Because of the more limited size of the Helsinki Heart Study, the observed difference in mortality from any cause between the gemfibrozil tablets and placebo group is not statistically significantly different from the 29% excess mortality reported in the clofibrate group in the separate WHO study at the nine year follow-up (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Noncoronary heart disease related mortality showed an excess in the group originally randomized to gemfibrozil tablets primarily due to cancer deaths observed during the open-label extension.
During the five year primary prevention component of the Helsinki Heart Study, mortality from any cause was 44 (2.2%) in the gemfibrozil tablets group and 43 (2.1%) in the placebo group; including the 3.5 year follow-up period since the trial was completed, cumulative mortality from any cause was 101 (4.9%) in the gemfibrozil tablets group and 83 (4.1%) in the group originally randomized to placebo (hazard ratio 1:20 in favor of placebo). Because of the more limited size of the Helsinki Heart Study, the observed difference in mortality from any cause between the gemfibrozil tablets and placebo groups at Year-5 or at Year-8.5 is not statistically significantly different from the 29% excess mortality reported in the clofibrate group in the separate WHO study at the nine year follow-up. Noncoronary heart disease related mortality showed an excess in the group originally randomized to gemfibrozil tablets at the 8.5 year follow-up (65 gemfibrozil tablets versus 45 placebo noncoronary deaths).
The incidence of cancer (excluding basal cell carcinoma) discovered during the trial and in the 3.5 years after the trial was completed was 51 (2.5%) in both originally randomized groups. In addition, there were 16 basal cell carcinomas in the group originally randomized to gemfibrozil tablets and 9 in the group originally randomized to placebo (p=0.22). There were 30 (1.5%) deaths attributed to cancer in the group originally randomized to gemfibrozil tablets and 18 (0.9%) in the group originally randomized to placebo (p=0.11). Adverse outcomes, including coronary events, were higher in gemfibrozil patients in a corresponding study in men with a history of known or suspected coronary heart disease in the secondary prevention component of the Helsinki Heart Study (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
A comparative carcinogenicity study was also done in rats comparing three drugs in this class: fenofibrate (10 and 60 mg/kg; 0.3 and 1.6 times the human dose, repectively), clofibrate (400 mg/kg; 1.6 times the human dose), and gemfibrozil (250 mg/kg; 1.7 times the human dose). Pancreatic acinar adenomas were increased in males and females on fenofibrate; hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic acinar adenomas were increased in males and hepatic neoplastic nodules in females treated with clofibrate; hepatic neoplastic nodules were increased in males and females treated with clofibrate; hepatic neoplastic nodules were increased in males and females treated with gemfibrozil while testicular interstitial cell (Leydig cell) tumors were increased in males on all three drugs.
2. A gallstone prevalence substudy of 450 Helsinki Heart Study participants showed a trend toward a greater prevalence of gallstones during the study within the gemfibrozil tablets treatment group (7.5% versus 4.9% for the placebo group, a 55% excess for the gemfibrozil group). A trend toward a greater incidence of gallbladder surgery was observed for the gemfibrozil tablets group (17 versus 11 subjects, a 54% excess). This result did not differ statistically from the increased incidence of cholecystectomy observed in the WHO study in the group treated with clofibrate. Both clofibrate and gemfibrozil may increase cholesterol excretion into the bile leading to cholelithiasis. If cholelithiasis is suspected, gallbladder studies are indicated. Gemfibrozil tablets therapy should be discontinued if gallstones are found. Cases of cholelithiasis have been reported with gemfibrozil therapy.
3. Since a reduction of mortality from coronary heart disease has not been demonstrated and because liver and interstitial cell testicular tumors were increased in rats, gemfibrozil tablets should be administered only to those patients described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. If a significant serum lipid response is not obtained, gemfibrozil tablets should be discontinued.
4. Concomitant Anticoagulantsâ€“Caution should be exercised when anticoagulants are given in conjunction with gemfibrozil tablets. The dosage of the anticoagulant should be reduced to maintain the prothrombin time at the desired level to prevent bleeding complications. Frequent prothrombin determinations are advisable until it has been definitely determined that the prothrombin level has stabilized.
5. Concomitant therapy with gemfibrozil tablets and an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor is associated with an increased risk of skeletal muscle toxicity manifested as rhabdomyolysis, markedly elevated creatine kinase (CPK) levels and myoglobinuria, leading in a high proportion of cases to acute renal failure and death. IN PATIENTS WHO HAVE HAD AN UNSATISFACTORY LIPID RESPONSE TO EITHER DRUG ALONE, THE BENEFIT OF COMBINED THERAPY WITH GEMFIBROZIL TABLETS AND an HMG-CoA REDUCTASE INHIBITOR DOES NOT OUTWEIGH THE RISKS OF SEVERE MYOPATHY, RHABDOMYOLYSIS, AND ACUTE RENAL FAILURE (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions). The use of fibrates alone, including gemfibrozil tablets, may occasionally be associated with myositis. Patients receiving gemfibrozil tablets and complaining of muscle pain, tenderness or weakness should have prompt medical evaluation for myositis, including serum creatineâ€“ kinase level determination. If myositis is suspected or diagnosed, gemfibrozil tablets therapy should be withdrawn.
6. Cataractsâ€“Subcapsular bilateral cataracts occurred in 10%, and unilateral in 6.3%, of male rats treated with gemfibrozil at 10 times the human dose.
Periodic determination of serum lipids should be obtained, and the drug withdrawn if lipid response is inadequate after three months of therapy.
The risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis is increased with combined gemfibrozil and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy. Myopathy or rhabdomyolysis with or without acute renal failure have been reported as early as three weeks after initiation of combined therapy or after several months (see WARNINGS). There is no assurance that periodic monitoring of creatine kinase will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy and kidney damage.
CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED WHEN ANTICOAGULANTS ARE GIVEN IN CONJUNCTION WITH GEMFIBROZIL TABLETS. THE DOSAGE OF THE ANTICOAGULANT SHOULD BE REDUCED TO MAINTAIN THE PROTHROMBIN TIME AT THE DESIRED LEVEL TO PREVENT BLEEDING COMPLICATIONS. FREQUENT PROTHROMBIN DETERMINATIONS ARE ADVISABLE UNTIL IT HAS BEEN DEFINITELY DETERMINED THAT THE PROTHROMBIN LEVEL HAS STABILIZED.
Long-term studies have been conducted in rats at 0.2 and 1.3 times the human exposure (based on AUC). The incidence of benign liver nodules and liver carcinomas was significantly increased in high dose male rats. The incidence of liver carcinomas increased also in low dose males, but this increase was not statistically significant (p=0.1). Male rats had a dose-related and statistically significant increase of benign Leydig cell tumors. The higher dose female rats had a significant increase in the combined incidence of benign and malignant liver neoplasms.
Long-term studies have been conducted in mice at 0.1 and 0.7 times the human exposure (based on AUC). There were no statistically significant differences from controls in the incidence of liver tumors, but the doses tested were lower than those shown to be carcinogenic with other fibrates.
Electron microscopy studies have demonstrated a florid hepatic peroxisome proliferation following gemfibrozil tablets administration to the male rat. An adequate study to test for peroxisome proliferation has not been done in humans but changes in peroxisome morphology have been observed. Peroxisome proliferation has been shown to occur in humans with either of two other drugs of the fibrate class when liver biopsies were compared before and after treatment in the same individual.
Administration of approximately 2 times the human dose (based on surface area) to male rats for 10 weeks resulted in a dose-related decrease of fertility. Subsequent studies demonstrated that this effect was reversed after a drug-free period of about eight weeks, and it was not transmitted to the offspring.
Gemfibrozil tablets has been shown to produce adverse effects in rats and rabbits at doses between 0.5 and 3 times the human dose (based on surface area). There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Gemfibrozil tablets should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Administration of gemfibrozil tablets to female rats at 2 times the human dose (based on surface area) before and throughout gestation caused a dose-related decrease in conception rate, an increase in stillborns, and a slight reduction in pup weight during lactation. There were also dose-related increased skeletal variations. Anophthalmia occurred, but rarely.
Administration of 0.6 and 2 times the human dose (based on surface area) of gemfibrozil tablets to female rats from gestation day 15 through weaning caused dose-related decreases in birth weight and suppressions of pup growth during lactation.
Administration of 1 and 3 times the human dose (based on surface area) of gemfibrozil tablets to female rabbits during organogenesis caused a dose-related decrease in litter size and, at the high dose, an increased incidence of parietal bone variations.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for gemfibrozil tablets in animal studies, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Mild hemoglobin, hematocrit and white blood cell decreases have been observed in occasional patients following initiation of gemfibrozil tablets therapy. However, these levels stabilize during long-term administration. Rarely, severe anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and bone marrow hypoplasia have been reported. Therefore, periodic blood counts are recommended during the first 12 months of gemfibrozil tablets administration.
Abnormal liver function tests have been observed occasionally during gemfibrozil tablets administration, including elevations of AST, ALT, LDH, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase. These are usually reversible when gemfibrozil tablets are discontinued. Therefore, periodic liver function studies are recommended and gemfibrozil tablets therapy should be terminated if abnormalities persist.
There have been reports of worsening renal insufficiency upon the addition of gemfibrozil tablets therapy in individuals with baseline plasma creatinine > 2.0 mg/dL. In such patients, the use of alternative therapy should be considered against the risks and benefits of a lower dose of gemfibrozil tablets.
In the double-blind controlled phase of the primary prevention component of the Helsinki Heart Study, 2046 patients received gemfibrozil tablets for up to five years. In that study, the following adverse reactions were statistically more frequent in subjects in the gemfibrozil tablets group:
|(N = 2046)
||(N = 2035)
|Frequency in percent of subjects
| Abdominal pain
| Acute appendicitis
| (histologically confirmed in most
| cases where data were available)
|Adverse events reported by more than 1% of subjects, but without a significant difference between groups:
Gallbladder surgery was performed in 0.9% of gemfibrozil tablets and 0.5% of placebo subjects in the primary prevention component, a 64% excess, which is not statistically different from the excess of gallbladder surgery observed in the clofibrate compared to the placebo group of the WHO study. Gallbladder surgery was also performed more frequently in the gemfibrozil tablets group compared to the placebo group (1.9% versus 0.3%, p=0.07) in the secondary prevention component. A statistically significant increase in appendectomy in the gemfibrozil group was seen also in the secondary prevention component (6 on gemfibrozil versus 0 on placebo, p=0.014).
Nervous system and special senses adverse reactions were more common in the gemfibrozil tablets group. These included hypesthesia, paresthesias, and taste perversion. Other adverse reactions that were more common among gemfibrozil tablets treatment group subjects but where a causal relationship was not established include cataracts, peripheral vascular disease, and intracerebral hemorrhage.
From other studies it seems probable that gemfibrozil tablets are causally related to the occurrence of MUSCULOSKELETAL SYMPTOMS (see WARNINGS), and to ABNORMAL LIVER FUNCTION TESTS and HEMATOLOGIC CHANGES (see PRECAUTIONS).
Reports of viral and bacterial infections (common cold, cough, urinary tract infections) were more common in gemfibrozil treated patients in other controlled clinical trials of 805 patients. Additional adverse reactions that have been reported for gemfibrozil are listed below by system. These are categorized according to whether a causal relationship to treatment with gemfibrozil tablets is probable or not established:
|Central Nervous System:
||decreased male fertility
||increased creatine phosphokinase
||positive antinuclear antibody
|increased liver transaminases
| (AST, ALT)
|increased alkaline phosphatase
|bone marrow hypoplasia
Additional adverse reactions that have been reported include cholecystitis and cholelithiasis (see WARNINGS).
The recommended dose for adults is 1200 mg administered in two divided doses 30 minutes before the morning and evening meals (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
There have been reported cases of overdosage with gemfibrozil tablets. In one case, a 7-year-old child recovered after ingesting up to 9 grams of gemfibrozil tablets. Symptoms reported with overdosage were abdominal cramps, abnormal liver function tests, diarrhea, increased CPK, joint and muscle pain, nausea and vomiting. Symptomatic supportive measures should be taken, should an overdose occur.
Gemfibrozil tablets, 600 mg are available as white to off-white, oval-shaped, film-coated tablets debossed with â€œ115â€ on one side and scored on the other side. Each tablet contains 600 mg gemfibrozil and is supplied as follows:
NDC 57664-115-83 Bottles of 30 CRC
NDC 57664-115-86 Bottles of 60 CRC
NDC 57664-115-88 Bottles of 100 CRC
NDC 57664-115-08 Bottles of 100
NDC 57664-115-13 Bottles of 500
NDC 57664-115-18 Bottles of 1000
Distributed by: Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd.
Detroit, MI 48202
Manufactured by: Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.
Cranbury, NJ 08512
gemfibrozil tablet, film coated
|Labeler - Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd. (146974886)|
|Registrant - Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc. (621283733)|
|Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.||621283733||MANUFACTURE, ANALYSIS, PACK|